Quasi Contract & Its Types:- The Indian Contract Act Notes
QUASI CONTRACT[Contracts implied in law or implied contract]
Quasi contract means a contract which lacks one or more of the essentials of a contract.
Quasi contract are declared by law as valid contracts on the basis of principles of equity i.e. no person shall be allowed to enrich himself at the expense of another the legal obligations of parties remains same.
Nature of Quasi contracts Under Indian Contract Act:-
- A quasi contract does not arise from any formal agreement but is imposed by law.
- Every quasi contract based upon the principle of equity and good conscience.
- A quasi contract is always a right to money and generally though not always to a liquidated sum of money.
- A suit for its breach may be filed in the same way as in case of a complete contract.
- The right grouted to a party under a quasi contract is not available to him against the whole world but against particular person(s) only.
- A suit for breach of a quasi contract may be filed in the same way as in case of an ordinary contract
- Although there is no contract between the parties under a quasi contracts, yet they are put in the same position as if he were a contract between them .
Provisions relating to various quasi contracts are contained in section 68 to sec 72 of the contract Act, 1872.
TYPES OF QUASI CONTRACTS
- Sec. 68 Supply of Necessaries
- Sec. 69 Reimbursement of money due
- Sec. 70 Obligation to pay for benefit out of non – gratuitous act
- Sec. 71 Responsibility of Finder of Goods
- Sec.72 Person receiving goods are money by mistake
Sec. 68: If a person, incapable of entering into a contract, or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person, with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.
Meaning of Necessaries
- Necessaries normally include articles required to maintain a particular person in the state, degree and station in life in which he is.
- They are essentials to run a life.
- An item will not be considered necessary, if a person already has sufficient supply of things of such kind.
- Necessaries include Services rendered to a person.
- What constitutes necessaries depends on the circumstances of each case.
Only property liable: person not liable
- It is only the property (movable and immovable) of the incapable person they shall be liable.
- He cannot be held liable personally.
- Where he doesn’t own any property, nothing shall be payable.
- A supplies B, a lunatic, with necessaries suitable to his condition in life. A is entitled to be reimbursed from B’s property.
- A who supplies the wife and children of B, a lunatic, with necessaries suitable to their condition in life, is entitled to be reimbursed from B’s Property.
Payment By a person who is interested in a transaction 
- Condition of section 
Sec. 69; A person, who is interested in the payment of money and pays such money, which another is bound by low to pay, is entitled to be reimbursed by the other.
- one party is legally bound to make a payment
- Some other persons make such payment
- The person making such payment is not legally bound to make such payment
- The person making such payment is interested in paying such amount
Legal effect of sec 69.:- If all the conditions of sec 69 are satisfy the person who is interested in paying such amount shall be entitled to recover the payment made by him.
Ex.:- The goods belonging to A were wrongfully attached in order to realize arrears of Government revenue due by G. A paid the amount to save the goods from sale at was held that A was entitled to recover the amount from G.
Obligation of person enjoying benefit of non-gratuitous act 
- Conditions of section 70.
Sec.70 : Where a person, lawfully does anything for another person, or delivers anything to him; not intending to do so gratuitously, and such other person enjoys the benefits thereof, then he is bound to make compensation to the other in respect of, or to restore the thing so done or delivered.
- A person has lawfully done something for another person or delivered something to another person.
- Such person must have acted voluntarily and non – gratuitously.
- The other person has enjoyed the benefit of the act done for him or the thing delivered to him.
- Legal effect of sec 70.
If the conditions of sec70 are satisfied, there will be quasi contract between the parties.
Consequently, the party who has done something or delivered a thing shall be entitled to recover its value from the person who obtained the benefit of the same.
Ex.:- A a trades man leaves goods at B’s house by mistake, B treat the goods as his own, He is bound to pay A for them.
A saves B’s property from fire. A is not entitled to compensation from B if the circumstances show that be intended to act gratuitously.
Finder of Goods 
A person who finds goods belonging to another and takes them into custody, is subject to the same responsibility as a Bailee.
A finder of goods has same rights and duties at that of bailee.
- Duty to take reasonable care of the goods
- Duty not to use the goods for his own purpose.
- Duty not to mix the goods with own goods
Right to recover expenses, reward, sell the goods
Ex.:- X a guest found a diamond ring at a birthday party of Y. X told Y and other guests about it. He has performed his duty to find the own. If he is not able to find the owner he can retain the ring as bales.
Money paid under a mistake or conversion 
Sec. 72: A person to whom money has been paid, or anything delivered by mistake or under coercion, must repay or return it.
Conditions of Sec. 72
- A person has
- Paid money to another person or
- Delivered something to another person
- Such person must have acted
- Under a mistake or under coercion.
Legal effect – quasi contract, recover its value from the person who obtained the benefit of same.
- A and B jointly owe Rs.1,000 to C.A alone pays the full amount to C and B not knowing this fact, pays Rs.1,000 again to C.C is bound to repay the amount to B.
- A Railway Company refuses to deliver certain goods to the Consignee except upon payment of an illegal charge for carriage. The Consignee pays the sum charged in order to take delivery of goods. He is entitled to recover so much of the charge as was illegally excessive.
Compensation for failure to discharge obligation created by quasi contract 
When an obligation created by quasi contract is not discharged the injured party is entitled to reline the same compensation from the party in default as if such person had, contracted to discharge is and broken his contract.
Quantum meruit: – [as much as is earned]
One party preventing the other:- If a party prevents the other party from completing his obligation under the contract the aggrieved party may claim payment on quantum merit for the part of contract already performed by him.
- In case of void agreement or contract that becomes
Any person who has received any advantage under such agreement or contract is bound to restore if or to make compensation for it, to the person from who received it.
Ex.:(1)- A – B – 10000 – to marry c (A’s daughter) – C – death of the time of performance of contract – B must repay A Rs 1000.
Ex.(2):- A – B decline 250 quince of rice before the 1st of May. A delivers 130 qu. Only before that day and none after. B retains the 130 qu. after the first of May. He is bound to pay A for them.
Ex(3):- A singer – two nights in every week during the next two month and B any ages to pay her Rs 100 for each night’s performance on the sixth night, A willfully absent perfect. B must pay a for the five night on which she had sung.
- In case of Act preventing the completing of contract:-
If a party does not complete the contract or prevents the other party to complete the contract the aggrieved party can sue or quantum meruit.
Ex.:- owner – P write a book to be published as series in his magazine. After a few series were published the publication of the magazine was stopped. It was held that P could claim payment on quantum meruit for the part already published.
- In case of divisible contract :-
- If the contract is divisible and
- If the party not at default has enjoyed benefit of the point performance.
- the contract is party performed
If the above condition an satisfied, the party at fault may claim on payment on quantum meruit for the part of contract performed by him be con recover such proportion of the contract price as the work done, by him bears to the work under the contracts.
- In case of indivisible contract performed completely but Badly.
- Contract is indivisible
- Lump sum consideration
- Completely performed
- Performed badly
The party at fault may recover the contract price (Lump sum price) less the deduction made for done badly.
Ex.:- X agreed to decorate Y’s flat for a lump sum of Rs20,000. X did the complete work but Y complained of faulty work man stop. It costs Y another Rs3000 to remedy the defect. X could recover only Rs 17000 from Y.
- In case of Non – gratuitous Act – Three condition
- The thing must have been done or delivered lawfully.
- The person who has done or delivered the thing must not have intended to do so gratuitously And
- The person from whom the act is done must have enjoyed the benefit of the act.
Ex.:- A, a tradesman leaves goods at B’s shop be mistake B treats the good as his own. He is bound to pay A for them.
Difference between Quasi Contract and Contract
|Matter||Quasi – contract||Contract|
|Intentionally Form||It is not intentionally formed but law imposes upon the parties.||It is intentionally formed by parties.|
|Essentials of contract||A quasi – contract does not possess all the essential of a valid contract.||A contract possesses all the essentials of a valid contract.|
|Obligations||Obligations are implied upon by the law.||Obligations are mutually created by the parties.|
|Foundation||It is founded upon the principle of equity.||It is founded upon general principal of law of contracts.|