Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases: Free Law Notes

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A Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases fundamentally pointed toward determining truth, which must be reasonable for all concerned, which incorporates the accused, the victim and society.

Trial Process Under CrPC

What is Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases?

  1. A Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases fundamentally pointed toward determining truth, which must be reasonable for all concerned, which incorporates the accused, the victim and society.
  2. The option to get a reasonable preliminary is an essential thing directly as ensured under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.
  3. Preliminary essentially implies the assessment under the watchful eye of an adjudicator of the realities put in issue in a reason, frequently including issues of law just as those of truth.

Trail Process by Court of Session

  • Procedure of Trail in Court of Session is to be led according to sec 225 to sec 236 of CrPC.
  • Sec 225 states that in each trail before the Court of Session, the arraignment will be directed by a Public Prosecutor.
  • Public Prosecutor implies any individual selected u/s 24 of CrPC and incorporates any individual acting under the headings of community worker.

Opening case for Prosecution: (Sec 226)

It expresses that when the blamed shows up or is brought under the watchful eye of the Court in compatibility of a dedication of the case under sec 209, the investigator will open his case by depicting the charge brought against the accused and expressing by what proof he proposes to demonstrate the blame of the charged.

Here the public investigator will give brief outline of the proof and the points of interest of the observers by which he proposes to demonstrate the case.

It isn’t essential for indictment to give full insights about the proof.

What is Investigation under CrPC?

Discharge: (Sec 227)

Sec 227 states that, endless supply of the record of the case and the archives submitted therewith, and subsequent to hearing the entries of the charged and the indictment for this benefit, the Judge thinks about that there isn’t adequate ground for continuing against the blamed, he will release the denounced and record his explanations behind so doing.

Here the Judge needs to practice his legal brain to current realities of the case so as to decide if a case for preliminary has been made out by the indictment.

Framing of Charge During Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases : (Sec 228)

Sec 228 states that if, after such thought and hearing as given in past areas, the Judge is of feeling that there is ground for assuming that the blamed has submitted an offense, the Judge may outline a charge against the denounced.

The charge will be perused and disclosed to the blamed and the denounced will be solicited whether he concedes from the offense charged or claims to be attempted.

Conviction on Plea of Guilty: (Sec 229)

On the off chance that at this phase of preliminary, the blamed confesses for submitting the offense and consents to the charges outlined, he might be straightforwardly indicted for those charges under sec 229 of CrPC.

On the off chance that the blamed argues not liable, at that point the appointed authority will direct to continue with the Trial and the denounced should confront the Trial.

The supplication of blameworthy must be in unambiguous terms, in any case such a request is certifiably not a legitimate supplication by any stretch of the imagination.



Date for Prosecution Evidence: (Sec 230)

On the off chance that the accused won’t plead or refuses, or cases to be attempted or isn’t indicted under sec 229, the Judge will fix a date for the assessment of witnesses, and may, on the application of the prosecution, issue any process for convincing the participation of any witness or the creation of any report or other thing.

Evidence for Prosecution: (Sec 231)

On the date so fixed, the Judge will continue to accept all such proof as might be delivered on the side of the indictment.

Section 3 of Evidence Act characterizes evidence as

All explanations which the Court allows or needs to be made before it by witnesses, according to issues of truth under request.

All archives including electronic records created for the assessment of the Court.

Witnesses will be first inspected in-boss, at that point (in the event that the antagonistic party so wants) cross inspected, at that point (if the gathering calling him so wants) re-inspected.

Record of Evidence:

Record of Evidence: Sec 276 of CRPC states that in all trials under the watchful eye of a Court of Session, the proof of each witness will,
Record of Evidence

Sec 276 of CrPC states that in all trials under the watchful eye of a Court of Session, the proof of each witness will, as his assessment continues, be brought down recorded as a hard copy either by the managing Judge himself or by his correspondence in open Court, or under his course and administration, by an official of the Court delegated by him.

Such proof will commonly be brought down as an account, however the directing Judge may, in his circumspection, bring down, such proof as question and answer.

The proof so brought down will be marked by the managing Judge and will shape part of the record.

Assessment of Accused u/s 313:

So as to offer a chance to the charged individual to clarify the conditions showing up in proof against him, sec 313 accommodates the assessment of the accused by the court.

Here the consideration of the blamed must be explicitly welcome to exculpatory bits of proof or conditions laid on record with the end goal of allowing him a chance to offer a clarification in the event that he decides to do as such.

Sanatan Naskar v. Province of West Bengal, (AIR 2010 SC 3570)

In this case, the Court stated that the aim of the examination of the accused under Sec 313 is to offer the accused a chance to elucidate the incriminating material which has surfaced on record.

  • It is a compulsory commitment upon the Court and, other than guaranteeing the consistence thereof, the Court needs to remember that the denounced gets a reasonable opportunity to clarify his lead.
  • Sec 313 states in each request or trail, to empower the accused by and to clarify any conditions showing up in the proof against him, the Court-
  • may at any stage, without beforehand notice the charged put such inquiries to him as the Court thinks about fundamental;
  • Will, after the observers for the arraignment have been inspected and before he is approached for his safeguard, question him by and large working on it.

Acquittal: (Sec 232)

If, after taking the proof for the prosecution, examining the accused and hearing the prosecution and the defence on the point, the Judge considers that there is no evidence that the accused dedicated the offence, the Judge shall record an order of acquittal.

Evidence for the Defence: (Sec 233)

Where the accused is not acquitted under sec 232, he shall be called upon to enter on his defence and adduce any proof he may additionally have in support thereof.

This provision is mandatory in nature and is supposed to shield the rights of the accused person. It imposes a responsibility on the court to name upon the accused person to enter on his defence and adduce evidence, he may additionally have in support thereof.

Argument: (Sec 234)

  • When the examination of the witnesses for the defence is complete, the prosecutor shall sum up his case and the accused or his pleader shall be entitled to reply.
  • Provided that the place any point of law is raised by the accused or his pleader, the prosecution may, with the permission of the Judge, make his submissions regard to such point of law.

Judgment of Acquittal or Conviction: (Sec 235)

Judgment of Acquittal or Conviction: (Sec 235): The object of this provision is to acquaint the court with social and private data of the perpetrator and thereby to enable the court to decide as to the appropriate sentence in appreciate to the conviction.

After listening to arguments and points of law, the Judge shall supply a judgment in the case.

  • After the accused is found guilty and an order of conviction is recorded by using the court, a separate and unique stage of trial has been furnished via sec 235 (2) of CrPC. Here the court is required to hear the accused on the query of sentence. The provision provides for pre-sentence hearing.
  • The object of this provision is to acquaint the court with social and private data of the perpetrator and thereby to enable the court to decide as to the appropriate sentence in appreciate to the conviction.

Preliminary Pleas to Bar the Trial

  • In a preliminary, certain preliminary pleas might raise when the accused is brought to the court and object to his being trail by the court.
  • For instance, he may argue that the court doesn’t have purview for the situation or that the offense happened excessively quite a while in the past, or that he has just been attempted and absolved for a similar offense. Such pleas are intended to prevent the preliminary from continuing further.

Court without jurisdiction

Court without jurisdiction: Jurisdiction of criminal courts is of two sorts. One that decides the competency of the court to attempt a particular offense and the other that decides if the offense occurred in the domain of the court, which is otherwise called territorial jurisdiction.

Jurisdiction of criminal courts is of two sorts. One that decides the competency of the court to attempt a particular offense and the other that decides if the offense occurred in the domain of the court, which is otherwise called territorial jurisdiction.

Competency of the Court to attempt the offense:

  • Sec 26 of CrPC read with section 6 of the principal figures out which court can attempt a given offense.
  • For instance: offense of violent causing hurt u/s 323 of IPC can be attempted by any judge while the offense of Murder u/s 302 of IPC can be attempted simply by a Court of Session.
  • Also, just the recommended court or judge has the force for all the offenses characterized in IPC and different laws.
  • If a court not legitimately engaged to attempt a specific offense continues to attempt such offense, a request can be raised that the court is acting without jurisdiction and that the trail by such court is closed.
  • Sec 461 of CrPC (Irregularities which vitiate procedures) gives that it any officer, who isn’t engaged to attempt an offense, attempts the wrongdoer for that offense, the procedures will be void.
  • Under CrPC no Executive Magistrate has any capacity to give a blamed individual a shot the charge for any offense. On the off chance that the Executive Magistrate attempts to do as such, he would be acting without ward, a substantial complaint can be raised against such preliminary.
  • According to Sec 479 of CrPC no justice or judge can attempt any case where he is a gathering or in which he is intrigued. On the off chance that a trail is started infringing upon this standard, a request can be brought up in such manner. This arrangement is authorized by Principle of Natural justice.

Territorial Jurisdiction:

  • This ward is resolved by Section 177 to 188 of CrPC. These guidelines have been instituted essentially with the end goal of comfort of the court, the investigating agency, the incriminated, and victim.
  • Sec 177 of CrPC states that each offense will customarily be asked into and attempted by a Court inside whose local jurisdiction it was submitted.
  • Sec 178 of CrPC states that
  • at the point when it is questionable when a few local areas offense was submitted, or
  • where an offense is submitted partly in two local areas
  • where an offense is a proceeding with one, and keeps on being proceed in more local areas, or
  • where it comprises of a few acts done in various local areas,
  • It might be tried or attempted by a Court with jurisdiction over any of such local areas.
  • Sec 179 of CrPC states that when a demonstration is an offense by reason of anything which has been done and of an outcome which has followed, the offense might be asked into or attempted by a Court inside whose nearby ward such thing has been done or such result has followed.
  • Sec 188 of CrPC states that when an offense is conducted outside India-
  • By a resident of India, regardless of whether on the high oceans or somewhere else; or
  • By an individual, not being such resident, on any boat or airplane enrolled in India, He might be managed in regard of such offense as though it had been submitted at any spot inside India at which he might be found.

Time limitation for Trial Procedure in a Criminal Cases

  • Prior, any offense submitted might have been taken discernment of after quite a few years.
  • This made grave shamefulness the gatherings as significant observers got inaccessible, or significant proof was demolished by time.
  • Thus, CrPC has now introduced some principles for taking discernment of the wrongdoings inside a particular time of their incident.
  • The arrangements with respect to such impediments are contains in Sec 467 to 473 and a blamed can exploit for the fitting area to raise the request that the argument against him is banished by the recommended time of restriction.

  Reasoning behind Time Limitations:

  • The reasoning behind the consideration of a time of restriction was that the declaration of witnesses gets more fragile with the slip by of time and memory and thusly the odds of blunders in decisions increment, since the proof gets more vulnerable.
  • Furthermore, the time of constraint would squeeze the arrangement of the criminal indictment to guarantee that the wrongdoer is sentenced and rebuffed rapidly to guarantee expedient equity.
  • The obstacle impact that the criminal equity framework focuses on, will stand crushed on the off chance that the discipline has not been conceded before the memory of the offense gets washed off from the tops of those influenced by it. 
  • The time of restriction will be-
  • a half year, if the offense is culpable with fine only;
  • one year, if the offense is culpable with detainment for a term not surpassing one year;
  • three years, if the offense is culpable with detainment for a term surpassing one year however not surpassing three years.
  • The time of restriction, according to offenses which might be attempted together, will be resolved concerning the offense which is culpable with the more extreme discipline.
  • Sec 471 of CrPC states that where the time of limitation terminates on a day when the Court is shut, the Court may take insight on the day on which the Court resumes.
  • Sec 472 of CrPC states that on account of a proceeding with offense, a new time of limitation will start to run at each time during which the offense proceeds.
  • Sec 473 of CrPC states that any Court may take perception of an offense after the expiry of the time of limitation, on the off chance that it is fulfilled on current realities and in the conditions of the case that the deferral has been appropriately clarified or that it is vital so to do in light of a legitimate concern for equity.

Autrefois Acquit and Autrefois Convict

  • A supplication of autrefois acquit means that an individual can’t be attempted again for an offense for the explanation that he has recently been vindicated in a same offense.
  • A request of autrefois convict implies that an individual can’t be pursued for an offense for the explanation that he has been recently been sentenced in a similar offense.
  • This supplication is given u/s 300 of CrPC which expresses that an individual who has whenever been attempted by a Court of equipped locale for an offense and sentenced or vindicated for such offense will, while such conviction or quittance stays in power, not be obligated to be attempted again for a similar offense.
  • Article 20 (2) Indian Constitution perceives this standard as major right.
  • It expresses that no individual will be arraigned and rebuffed for a similar offense more than once.

Compounding of Offenses Under Crpc

  • In the event that both the parties compromise with each other at that point the Court needs to discard the case regarding that compromise and the solicitor is to be acquitted.
  • In the event that, then again, parties vary, at that point the Court needs to call upon them to lead proof and afterward record a finding on such evidence.
  • The offenses that may legitimately be intensified are those that are referenced in Section 320 of the CrPC.
  • Just the individual named in the third segment of Section 320 can legitimately intensify an offense under Section 320 CrPC.
  • The object of Section 320 of the CrPC is to make settlement between the parties which will spare the hour of the Court.
  • Section 320 of the CrPC manages exacerbating of offenses. Compoundable offenses are less genuine offenses and are of two unique sorts referenced in tables in Section 320 of the CrPC, as follows:

Court authorization isn’t needed before compounding– Examples of these offenses incorporates will fully causing hurt, slander, criminal trespass.

Court authorization is needed before compounding– Examples of such offenses are, intentionally causing deplorable hurt, cheating, Criminal Breach of Trust.


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